The legacy of Manifest Destiny? Trauma and suffering

SOURCE: http://www.santafenewmexican.com/opinion/my_view/the-legacy-of-manifest-destiny-trauma-and-suffering/article_1a6e980c-41ff-50bc-bee4-40836ad18ddf.html

The All Pueblo Council of Governors consists of the 19 sovereign Pueblo Nations of New Mexico, with the 20th Pueblo nation, Ysleta del Sur, in Texas. We are the oldest political organization in the country, dating back to the Pueblo Revolt of 1680. We are the primary and official advocacy organization representing the Pueblo Nations on all matters locally and at the state and federal levels.

We are appalled and deeply offended by the recent statements at a charter school conference by Public Education Department Secretary-designate Christopher Ruszkowski regarding Manifest Destiny as the continuing core value of this nation and the state that drives the education agenda. This is utterly disgraceful, lacking any sensitivity, understanding and appreciation of the atrocious impacts of Manifest Destiny upon generations of our people. The principles of Manifest Destiny have inflicted multigenerational trauma. That is the legacy of Manifest Destiny in our history.

Manifest Destiny for tribal nations is aligned with the Doctrine of Discovery that justified the racial hierarchy. The discriminatory principles drawn from these two doctrines made their way into the earliest U.S. Supreme Court decisions that defined policies and laws significantly disadvantageous to Native Americans and their nations that continue to this day.

As a result of the Western expansion, the General Allotment Act of 1887, commonly known as the Dawes Act, formalized and incorporated “Indian Education.” The policy of assimilation was, in their words, to “convert them into American citizens.” These combined policies ushered in the boarding schools. The mantra was “to kill the Indian and save the man. The way you kill the language and culture is to remove the children and deny those children their language and culture.”

In the words of Thomas Jefferson Morgan, commissioner of Indian affairs in 1889, “We must either fight the Indians, feed the Indians or else educate them. To fight them is cruel, to feed them is a waste, while to educate them is humane, economic, and Christian.” This was the justification to transform us, to strip us from our identity and to force us into the “melting pot.” We have resisted, struggling to find a balance and, in many places, created great successes.

The Santa Fe Indian School on Cerrillos Road was one of the earliest schools constructed in 1890 to fulfill Manifest Destiny and to further the assimilation of our children. Since the historic enactment of the Self Determination and Education Assistance Act that we actively worked on and passed into law in 1975, we have taken ownership and transformed the school driven by our vision of education. The Santa Fe Indian School was the first Indian-controlled school recognized by President Ronald Reagan as a School of Education Excellence.

Unfortunately, for many schools out of our control, since the earliest days, study after study documents the failures and the devastation caused by ill-conceived policies and laws. It may have made America great, but it has been at a huge cost to the indigenous peoples of this nation. We are the surviving nations and peoples.

A person in Ruszkowski’s position in 2017 in a state with a population that has been significantly victimized and devastated by these policies he espouses regrettably has no place in a leadership capacity. The least that our children, their parents and our leaders deserve is an apology for those comments.

In the last several months, we have been engaged in protesting proposals by the department’s Bilingual and Multicultural Education Bureau to repeal and replace essential language programs — this, after years of struggle to legitimize indigenous languages to take their rightful place among heritage languages that are in statute. We have argued that our children should have the opportunity to learn their languages as a basic and fundamental right in their education, and we have accomplished that. It is at the heart of our protest to any changes to that framework.

This conflict exemplifies at the most fundamental level our continuing struggle and fight for what our children deserve in maintaining their identity, while having the best education possible. When children were forcibly removed from their families and shipped off to boarding schools, Hopi elders protested against the cruelty of these government policies. For their protests, they were imprisoned at Alcatraz. Our advocacy on behalf of our children continues with the deepest of our love for them and what we feel they deserve. What the man in charge of public education espouses is offensive, given our history and fight for survival.

E. Paul Torres is the chairman of the All Pueblo Council of Governors. He is from Isleta Pueblo.

Here’s what Public Education Department Secretary-designate Christopher Ruszkowski said earlier this month, speaking at the Charter School Coalition’s annual conference in Albuquerque, as reported by the Albuquerque Journal. Ruszkowski was discussing the notion of school choice, which he touted as “quintessentially American,” before going on to say: “This is a country built over the last 250 years on things like freedom, choice, competition, options, going west, Manifest Destiny — these are the fundamental principles of this country. That’s why charter schools make so much sense — high-quality options — in the context of where we are as a country.”

Multicultural Awareness Boosts Teaching Competency, But Is an Uneven Resource Among Future Teachers

Source: http://www.nyu.edu/about/news-publications/news/2017/december/multicultural-awareness-boosts-teaching-competency–but-is-an-un.html

Prior Experience Working with Youth of Color Linked to More Multicultural Awareness

 

Student teachers with more multicultural awareness foster more positive classroom environments for their students, finds a new study by NYU Steinhardt School of Culture, Education, and Human Development and published in the Journal of Teacher Education.

However, multicultural awareness varies considerably among future teachers based on their own race or ethnicity and prior experience working with youth of color.

Multicultural awareness – which refers to an awareness of, comfort with, and sensitivity toward issues of cultural diversity in the classroom – is crucial to teachers’ abilities to promote positive outcomes for all students. Despite decades of policy reforms that emphasize the importance of multicultural awareness, few comparative studies have examined its prevalence in students preparing to be teachers (also known as preservice teachers) or the link between multicultural awareness and future teachers’ measured competencies.

“In light of the persistent demographic divide between a predominantly White teaching force and evermore racially and ethnically diverse schools, current and future educators’ abilities to create inclusive classroom environments are critical for fostering student success,” said Hua-Yu Sebastian Cherng, assistant professor of international education at NYU Steinhardt and the study’s lead author.

In this study, the researchers used unique data of preservice teachers’ beliefs and student teacher performance assessments to ask whether levels of multicultural awareness vary by characteristics such as race and ethnicity, education, and prior experience working with diverse youth, as well as whether multicultural awareness shapes teaching competency.

Surveys on multicultural beliefs were collected from 2,473 undergraduate and graduate students enrolled in teacher certification programs at a private U.S. university between 2010 and 2015. About 60 percent of the students surveyed (1,498) were also observed and evaluated by master teachers while student teaching.

The researchers found that multicultural beliefs are tied to student teachers’ ability to create strong and nurturing classroom environments, measured during student teaching observations by master teachers.

“Our study underscores the importance of equipping all teachers with essential multicultural knowledge, skills, and dispositions,” added Cherng.

The researchers also found that Black and Latino preservice teachers report greater multicultural awareness than their White counterparts. Asian American preservice teachers report having the least multicultural awareness.

“These differences are consistent with prior research that finds that Black and Latino teachers, drawing upon their own identities and experiences as racial minorities, are often more aware of and sensitive toward cultural differences,” said Cherng. “What is less clear is why Asian Americans report having lower levels of multicultural awareness. It is possible that Asian American student teachers believe that multicultural education, like other discourses on race that make little mention of Asian Americans, does not include or embrace their identities.”

Preservice teachers, particularly Latinos and Asian Americans, who had prior experience working with students of color had higher levels of multicultural awareness.

“This finding suggests that educators may develop a stronger racial consciousness through working with youth of color,” Cherng said.

Preservice teachers in different content area and grade-level programs reported different levels of multicultural awareness. For example, compared to future teachers in early childhood programs, those in math, science, and social studies programs had lower levels of multicultural awareness.

The researchers urge that their findings be used to inform teacher education policy and meaningfully focus both curriculum and instruction on preservice teachers that would benefit most from multicultural awareness.

The study can also inform teacher recruitment efforts. For example, since they found that prior experience working with youth of color is linked with more multicultural awareness, recruitment efforts could focus on community organizations that serve diverse youth.

“Through a deeper understanding of the relationships between preservice teachers’ background characteristics, multicultural beliefs, and evolving teaching competencies, our study contributes to our understanding of preparing teachers for diverse classrooms and prompts further investigation into developing cultural competence in teaching,” said Cherng.

Laura Davis of New York University coauthored the study with Cherng.

About the Steinhardt School of Culture, Education, and Human Development (@nyusteinhardt)
Located in the heart of Greenwich Village, NYU’s Steinhardt School of Culture, Education, and Human Development prepares students for careers in the arts, education, health, media, and psychology. Since its founding in 1890, the Steinhardt School’s mission has been to expand human capacity through public service, global collaboration, research, scholarship, and practice. To learn more about NYU Steinhardt, visit steinhardt.nyu.edu.

Love Has No Labels | Diversity & Inclusion | Ad Council

Published on Mar 3, 2015

While the vast majority of Americans consider themselves unprejudiced, many of us unintentionally make snap judgments about people based on what we see—whether it’s race, age, gender, religion, sexuality, or disability. The Love Has No Labels campaign challenges us to open our eyes to our bias and prejudice and work to stop it in ourselves, our friends, our families, and our colleagues. Rethink your bias at http://www.lovehasnolabels.com

10 Racist US Supreme Court Rulings

Source: https://www.thoughtco.com/racist-supreme-court-rulings-721615

by Tom Head
Updated March 03, 2017
The Supreme Court has issued some fantastic civil rights rulings over the years, but these aren’t among them. Here are ten of the most astonishingly racist Supreme Court rulings in American history, in chronological order.

01
of 10
Dred Scott v. Sandford (1856)
When a slave petitioned the U.S. Supreme Court for his freedom, the Court ruled against him—also ruling that the Bill of Rights didn’t apply to African Americans. If it did, the majority ruling argued, then African Americans would be permitted “the full liberty of speech in public and in private,” “to hold public meetings upon political affairs,” and “to keep and carry arms wherever they went.” In 1856, both the justices in the majority and the white aristocracy they represented found this idea too horrifying to contemplate. In 1868, the Fourteenth Amendment made it law. What a difference a war makes!

02
of 10
Pace v. Alabama (1883)
In 1883 Alabama, interracial marriage meant two to seven years’ hard labor in a state penitentiary. When a black man named Tony Pace and a white woman named Mary Cox challenged the law, the Supreme Court upheld it—on grounds that the law, inasmuch as it prevented whites from marrying blacks and blacks from marrying whites, was race-neutral and did not violate the Fourteenth Amendment. The ruling was finally overturned in Loving v. Virginia (1967). More »

03
of 10
The Civil Rights Cases (1883)
Q: When did the Civil Rights Act, which mandated an end to racial segregation in public accommodations, pass? A: Twice. Once in 1875, and once in 1964.

We don’t hear much about the 1875 version because it was struck down by the Supreme Court in the Civil Rights Cases ruling of 1883, made up of five separate challenges to the 1875 Civil Rights Act. Had the Supreme Court simply upheld the 1875 civil rights bill, U.S. civil rights history would have been dramatically different.

04
of 10
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
Most people are familiar with the phrase “separate but equal,” the never-achieved standard that defined racial segregation until Brown v. Board of Education (1954), but not everybody knows that it comes from this ruling, where Supreme Court justices bowed to political pressure and found an interpretation of the Fourteenth Amendment that would still allow them to keep public institutions segregated. More »

05
of 10
Cumming v. Richmond (1899)
When three black families in Richmond County, Virginia faced the closing of the area’s only public black high school, they petitioned the Court to allow their children to finish their education at the white high school instead. It only took the Supreme Court three years to violate its own “separate but equal” standard by establishing that if there was no suitable black school in a given district, black students would simply have to do without an education. More »

06
of 10
Ozawa v. United States (1922)
A Japanese immigrant, Takeo Ozawa, attempted to become a full U.S. citizen, despite a 1906 policy limiting naturalization to whites and African Americans. Ozawa’s argument was a novel one: Rather than challenging the constitutionality of the statute himself (which, under the racist Court, would have probably been a waste of time anyway), he simply attempted to establish that Japanese Americans were white. The Court rejected this logic.

07
of 10
United States v. Thind (1923)
An Indian-American U.S. Army veteran named Bhagat Singh Thind attempted the same strategy as Takeo Ozawa, but his attempt at naturalization was rejected in a ruling establishing that Indians, too, are not white. Well, the ruling technically referred to “Hindus” (ironic considering that Thind was actually a Sikh, not a Hindu), but the terms were used interchangeably at the time. Three years later he was quietly granted citizenship in New York; he went on to earn a Ph.D. and teach at the University of California at Berkeley.

08
of 10
Lum v. Rice (1927)
In 1924, Congress passed the Oriental Exclusion Act to dramatically reduce immigration from Asia—but Asian Americans born in the United States were still citizens, and one of these citizens, a nine-year-old girl named Martha Lum, faced a catch-22. Under compulsory attendance laws, she had to attend school—but she was Chinese and she lived in Mississippi, which had racially segregated schools and not enough Chinese students to warrant funding a separate Chinese school. Lum’s family sued to try to allow her to attend the well-funded local white school, but the Court would have none of it.

09
of 10
Hirabayashi v. United States (1943)
During World War II, President Roosevelt issued an executive order severely restricting the rights of Japanese Americans and ordering 110,000 to be relocated to internment camps. Gordon Hirabayashi, a student at the University of Washington, challenged the executive order before the Supreme Court–and lost.

10
of 10
Korematsu v. United States (1944)
Fred Korematsu also challenged the executive order and lost in a more famous and explicit ruling that formally established that individual rights are not absolute and may be suppressed at will during wartime. The ruling, generally considered one of the worst in the history of the Court, has been almost universally condemned over the past six decades.

University of Michigan – Director of the William Monroe Trotter Multicultural Center

Position Announcement

 

University of Michigan

Director of the William Monroe Trotter Multicultural Center

 

The University of Michigan, one of the great public research universities in the nation and the world, seeks an energetic leader, skilled administrator, and collaborative campus partner to serve as Director of the William Monroe Trotter Multicultural Center.

 

From the time of its founding in 1817, the University of Michigan has developed into a national model of a complex, diverse, and comprehensive institution of higher learning that supports excellence in research; provides outstanding undergraduate, graduate, and professional education; and demonstrates commitment to public service and engagement. It is one of only two institutions consistently ranked among the nation’s top ten public universities. Many of its departments and professional schools are ranked among the top ten in the country. The University has an annual budget of over $7 billion and $1.3 billion in annual research expenditures. The Ann Arbor campus is located 35 miles west of Detroit, with regional campuses located in the cities of Dearborn and Flint.

 

The William Monroe Trotter House officially opened its doors as a Black student cultural center in 1971 and was named after publisher and civil-rights activist William Monroe Trotter. In 1981, the mission of the Trotter House was expanded to serve all students and, in 2004, its name was changed to the William Monroe Trotter Multicultural Center. Today, the Trotter Center is a vibrant hub that welcomes and serves all members of the campus community. In the fall of 2018, the Trotter Center will move to a new, specially designed 20,000-square-foot building located at the heart of the University’s central campus. Its new location will be emblematic of the important role the Trotter Center plays in the life of the institution. The new Trotter Center will serve as an iconic and programmatic symbol for all students, as an open and inclusive facility that fosters intercultural engagement and strengthens connections between and among communities, as a supportive home and environment to those committed to social justice and diversity, and as a space that celebrates the tradition and history of the Trotter Center and the activism of students.

 

The Director of the William Monroe Trotter Multicultural Center will be responsible for developing, directing, and administering all operations, programming, services, and resources that advance the mission of the Trotter Center and the core values of the University of Michigan and its Division of Student Life. Characteristic duties and responsibilities include: envisioning the next era of excellence and innovation for the Trotter Center and working with students, faculty, staff, senior administrators, alumni, and other stakeholders to establish support and capacity to implement this vision; partnering with academic and administrative units to implement initiatives that enhance student development, multicultural education, and campus climate; working primarily with students and student organizations and with other internal and external constituencies to provide activities, programs, and intellectual exchanges that engage diverse perspectives and identities, promote cultural competence, enrich campus climate, and foster a culture of mutual respect and inclusion; serving as a mentor and advocate for students, providing direct support and connecting them with the many resources available at the institution; working creatively with others to anticipate and provide constructive responses to challenging student and community issues; overseeing facility operations, marketing, reservation processes, maintenance, security, and other functions; managing the unit’s budget and supporting fundraising and grant development efforts; and coordinating the assessment and continuous improvement of operations, programs, and services. Reporting to the Associate Vice President for Student Life, the Director will supervise two full-time staff and approximately 30 graduate and undergraduate student staff and interns. The University of Michigan is actively engaged in a capital campaign designed to increase resources for major diversity, equity, and inclusion initiatives, including the Trotter Center.

 

Minimum requirements include a master’s degree and five years of related experience; a doctorate is preferred, as is eight or more years of progressive experience in student life, multicultural education, and/or a related field. The University of Michigan is seeking a thoughtful, energetic, and highly collaborative administrator who demonstrates a passion for working with students and helping them flourish on campus, is adept at both strategy and operations, and has a track record of advancing diversity, equity, and inclusion in higher education. The position requires an experienced leader of people and programs who communicates effectively, manages resources wisely, acts with the highest degree of integrity, and inspires the confidence and trust of others. The ideal candidate will demonstrate the commitment and capacity to serve as a caring adviser and mentor for students, particularly those from underserved and underrepresented groups, and the interpersonal skills, diplomacy, political savvy, and sensitivity to engage effectively with all constituencies, build consensus for change, and thrive in a highly complex and decentralized environment.

 

Review of applications will begin November 27, 2017 and will continue until the position is filled. A resume and cover letter explaining how the applicant meets the qualifications specified in this announcement may be submitted via the Spelman Johnson website at www.spelmanjohnson.com/open-positions. Confidential inquiries and nominations for this position may be emailed to James M. Norfleet at jmn@spelmanjohnson.com. Applicants needing reasonable accommodation to participate in the application process should contact Spelman Johnson at 413-529-2895.

 

Spelman Johnson

University of Michigan – Director of the William Monroe Trotter Multicultural Center

James M. Norfleet, Search Associate

 

Visit the University of Michigan website at www.umich.edu

 

The University of Michigan is an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer.