Title IX Defined – Excellent source of Information on the Law

Title IX Defined – Excellent source of Information on the Law

What is Title IX?

As part of the Education Amendments of 1972, Title IX prohibits discrimination in education on the basis of sex. Title IX covers all levels and areas of education, including athletics and vocational/technical education. Title IX has helped women and girls, men and boys benefit from more equitable treatment and attain more equitable outcomes. However, gender disparities based on traditional stereotypes and subtle but damaging discrimination persist.

Gender Issues: Women’s Participation in the Sciences Has Increased, but Agencies Need to Do More to Ensure Compliance with Title IX ,” the July 2004 report from the US Government Accountability Office (GAO), describes how the US Department of Justice works with 21 federal agencies including NASA, the Department of Energy, and the National Science Foundation (NSF) to implement the Final Common Rule. The Final Common Rule provides guidelines for enforcement of Title IX and is modeled after the Department of Education (ED) Title IX regulations. Unfortunately, many recipients of federal financial assistance from these science agencies fail to implement or report on their Title IX compliance activities or to designate a Title IX coordinator.

Early history of Title IX – Dr. Bernice Sandler, “Godmother of Title IX” describes the creation of this civil rights law.

Title IX at 30 – This report card on gender equity is from the National Coalition for Women and Girls in Education.

Title IX at 35:  Beyond the Headlines –  The 2008 Executive Summary (PDF) and full report (PDF) from the National Coalition for Women and Girls in Education covers progress and challenges since the 2002 Title IX at 30 report.

The Triumphs of Title IX (PDF) are featured in the fall 2007 issue of Ms. magazine.

Title IX Questions and Answers (PDF)

TitleIX.info – This website provides a non-technical guide to ten key areas of Title IX.

Title IX Online Resources (PDF) – This list includes links to organizations and information to help you take advantage of Title IX. It is formatted in PDF to make it ready for you to handout.


Federal Title IX Documents

General Information on Title IX, its Regulations, and Coordinators

1972 Full Statute of Title IX

1975 Regulations-Title IX Coordinator Section (PDF)

1980 Title IX Regulations from the Department of Justice

2000 Final Common Rule (Title IX Regulations for various Federal Agencies)

2000 Regulations to implement the Civil Rights Restoration Act of 1987

2001 Title IX Legal Manual from the Department of Justice (PDF)

2001 Executive Order 13160 for Federally Conducted Education and Training Programs

2001 Questions and Answers on Title IX Coordinators from the Title IX Legal Manual

2004 Title IX Coordinator Compliance letter to SEAs and LEAs

2004 Title IX Coordinator Compliance Letter to postsecondary Institutions

2010 How to file a Title IX complaint

2010 Office of Civil Rights Complaint Processing Procedures

2011 List of State Title IX Gender Equity Coordinators (PDF)


1979 Title IX & Intercollegiate Athletics

1996 Clarification of Intercollegiate Athletics Policy

2003 Report of Secretary’s Commission on Opportunity in Athletics (PDF)

2003 Minority Views on the Report of the Commission on Opportunity in Athletics (PDF)

2005 Additional Clarification of Intercollegiate Athletics Policy (Superceded by April
2010 guidance)

2010 Intercollegiate Athletics Policy Clarification: The Three Part Test—Part three (PDF)

Sexual Harassment

1997 Sexual Harassment Guidance

1999 Protecting Students from Harassment and Hate Crime (PDF)

2001 Current Sexual Harassment Guidance

2006 letter from OCR on enforcement of the 2001 Sexual Harassment Policy (PDF)

2008 Sexual Harassment: It’s Not Academic-OCR booklet (PDF)

2010 Letter and Fact Sheet from OCR on Harassment and Bullying

Single Sex Education

2002 Single-Sex Education Guidelines

2004 Proposed Changes in Single Sex Education Rules (PDF)

2006 Department of Education Title IX Regulations on Single-Sex education (PDF)

2007 Letter from OCR Summarizing ED 2006 Title IX Regulation on Single-sex Classes and Extracurricular Activities

Vocational Education and STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics)

1979 Guidelines for Vocational Education Programs

1993 Methods of Administration Agreement

2009 Title IX & STEM: Promising Practices for Science, Technology Engineering and Mathematics (PDF)


*Filing a Claim with the U.S. Department of Justice’s Civil Rights Division and the U.S. Department of Education’s Office for Civil Rights*

*Filing a Claim with the U.S. Department of Justice’s Civil Rights Division and the U.S. Department of Education’s Office for Civil Rights*


*Thursday, July 28 at 3:00pm EST*


* *


The White House Initiative on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders, in

collaboration with the U.S. Department of Justice’s Civil Rights Division

and the U.S. Department of Education’s Office for Civil Rights, will hold a

webinar on how to file complaints for bullying and harassment in schools.***



** **


Children are too often the targets of bullying, discrimination, and

harassment for their race and religious beliefs. Of the teachers surveyed

for the National Education Association’s *Nationwide Study of Bullying in

2009*, 19 percent perceived racial remarks as a bullying problem, while 6

percent believed religious remarks were an issue. Meanwhile, in the 2009 *Youth

Risk Behavior Surveillance System*, 17.5 percent of Asian American high

school students and 20.4 percent of Native Hawaiian Pacific Islander high

school students reported being bullied on school property. Bullying is an

increasingly pressing issue for Asian American and Pacific Islander youth,

one with potentially dire consequences and requires urgent attention from

community members and allies. Join the White House Initiative on Asian

Americans and Pacific Islanders, the U.S. Department of Justice’s Civil

Rights Division, and the U.S. Department of Education’s Office for Civil

Rights for a webinar about taking action against bullying and harassment.***



** **


*WHO:* Akil Vohra, White House Initiative on Asian Americans and Pacific



Mehgan Sidhu, U.S. Department of Justice****


Kay Bhagat, U.S. Department of Education****


** **


*WHEN:*Thursday, July 28 at 3:00pm EST**


** **


*DIAL IN:*Toll Free: 888-324-8021 Toll number: 1-415-228-4847****


* *


*PASSCODE:*  8539598****


** **




1. Go to


2. Enter your name and email address.

3. Enter the session password: welcome1

4. Click “Join Now”.

5. Follow the instructions that appear on your screen. ****


** **


This call is not intended for press purposes and is off the record. For more

information e-mail WhiteHouseAAPI@ed.gov.****


Time for Justice in Anoka-Hennepin

July 26, 2011

Seeking Justice for LGBT Students
The Southern Poverty Law Center—Teaching Tolerance’s parent organization—has filed a joint lawsuit against the Anoka-Hennepin school district for refusing to stop pervasive anti-gay harassment. Minnesota’s largest district defended its policies as “middle of the road.” But “there is no middle of the road when it comes to protecting rights,” says Teaching Tolerance Managing Editor Sean Price. “… And there is no middle of the road when, standing on one side are students and on the other are homophobic people spewing hate. There is only the right thing to do, and Anoka-Hennepin has refused to do it.”


At Two-Year Colleges, Less Scrutiny Equals Less Athletic Equality

NY Times

July 16, 2011

At Two-Year Colleges, Less Scrutiny Equals Less Athletic Equality


Los Angeles Southwest College has a new athletic field house and football stadium, but almost no female athletes.

Women make up more than two-thirds of students at this community college in the city’s South Central neighborhood, but less than a quarter of its athletes. The college’s decision to suspend the track team this year left women who wanted to play a sport with a single option: basketball.

Henry Washington, the college’s athletic director and head football coach, acknowledges that his program is most likely violating federal law by failing to offer enough roster spots to women. But he said many of the female students are also juggling jobs and child care, and do not have time to play sports. Then there is the question of money. “I just keep my fingers crossed that we can keep what we have,” he said.

Pensacola State College in Florida has suffered through its share of budget cuts, and athletic officials have long faced the thorny question of how much interest there is at a college that devotes an entire campus to health sciences programs, where students tend to be older, overwhelmingly female and, supposedly, less eager to play sports.

But there is no shortage of women playing sports at Pensacola. The college invests about $1 million a year in the athletics program, and coaches scour the state and beyond for talented female players. The women’s basketball team won the state championship this year.

Bill Hamilton, the Pensacola athletic director, said his success had not come without struggle. But abiding by the law is a priority. “We don’t do things around here because it’s easy,” he said. “We do things because it’s right.”

The situation at Los Angeles Southwest, without question, more closely represents the norm among community colleges around the country. Even as they play an increasingly vital role in American higher education — enrolling more than eight million students nationwide last fall, a 20 percent jump since the fall of 2007, just before the start of the recession — community colleges are routinely failing to provide enough athletic opportunities to women, as required under Title IX, the federal law banning sex discrimination in education. Many community colleges offer an array of options for men but just a single team for women. And dozens of colleges over the years had no women on their athletic rosters, according to federal education statistics.

No one disputes that community colleges face distinct challenges, with a lack of money paramount. But Pensacola, one of the rare exceptions among community colleges, offers evidence that the demands of the law can be met.

In many ways, Los Angeles Southwest’s struggles — and Pensacola’s success — echo the conversations that took place decades ago at elite four-year colleges and major public universities.

“People who say they can’t find students who are interested or they can’t recruit, it sounds very much like what I heard 30 years ago, 40 years ago in the 1970s,” said Carol Kashow, the athletic director at Hostos Community College in the Bronx. “That’s the reason for Title IX, so there can’t be an excuse to not give opportunities.”

But community colleges have rarely been scrutinized. That may change as an influx of recent high school graduates have entered community colleges, seeing them as an affordable alternative to four-year universities. This shift in the student body — already majority female — could lead to heightened demands from students who could well expect and even legally demand the opportunity to participate in sports.

“While some of our states and regions have seen the handwriting on the wall, many are still sitting in the dark,” Karen Sykes, a former president of the National Junior College Athletic Association, warned officials at a meeting several years ago. Sykes said “it was only a matter of time” before community colleges would come under scrutiny for their shortcomings.

Because community colleges have a mandate to educate all comers, they have a special obligation to offer women a legitimate shot at playing sports, said Jaime Lester, an assistant professor at George Mason University who has studied gender issues at community colleges. “It’s crucial to hold these democratic institutions — these bastions of people’s colleges — up to that level of scrutiny,” Lester said. “If we don’t hold them up, why should we hold anyone else up?”

Nontraditional Students

Henry Washington has served as athletic director at Los Angeles Southwest College for 27 years, and each year, he said, women’s basketball faces the same challenge: the team starts out with a roster of 12 players only to dwindle to five or six by the end of the season.

“Sometimes they’re not motivated, they may have a child,” he said. “There are all kinds of obstacles that are getting in the way of trying to even keep teams.”

It is a common refrain among athletic directors at community colleges: women, they say, do not sign up for sports. While the economic recession has expanded the pool of traditional-age students, men and women who attend community colleges do not fit the typical mold of student-athletes. They tend to be older, and almost half of all community college students work more than 25 hours a week, according to federal education statistics.

But federal statistics show few differences between the men and women who attend these colleges: the men work, too, and tend not to be any younger.

And yet the men, despite similar hardships or responsibilities, still manage to play sports in significant numbers.

Those who lament the lack of athletic options for women at community colleges note that women are losing out on something that is more than some idealistic abstraction. A growing body of research has shown that participating in athletics can have a positive effect on health and self-esteem as well as academics and one’s professional career, benefits as valuable to community college students as to those at more affluent four-year colleges.

Sykes, the former junior college athletic association president, questioned whether some members were making a genuine effort. Some community colleges “were willing to make a halfhearted effort and then willing to accept the consequences,” she said.

Some argue that community colleges should do more to market their athletic programs to their demographic, either by rearranging practice schedules or by offering sports, such as bowling, golf or tennis, that might appeal to older students.

“If institutions and community colleges wanted to really provide those opportunities to women, and if there was some value in that from their perspective, they would find a way to do it,” said Frank Harris III, an assistant professor at San Diego State University.

Even Washington, the Los Angeles Southwest athletic director, said he did not accept the excuse that women at his college and others like it were not interested in sports. “One thing I did learn is that if you hire a woman full time to recruit women,” he said, “then the outcome would probably be a little different.”

But because of his college’s financial situation, he said, all of his coaches work part time.

Washington said surveys of local high schools have shown that potential students are interested in playing women’s soccer and softball, but that his plan to add softball had been delayed by budget troubles. California has cut nearly $400 million in aid to community colleges over the past two years, and recently cut another $400 million in financing for the next academic year. The reductions led Los Angeles Southwest to cancel 200 classes over the past two years.

Jack E. Daniels III, the president of Los Angeles Southwest, said he was aware of the need to add women’s teams. But the college’s financial situation is so dire, he is considering eliminating the entire athletic program, which currently costs about $300,000 a year.

“Right now, it’s probably a 50-50 proposition,” Daniels said. The new field house and football stadium were built using bonds approved by voters several years ago, when the economy was flush and “there was no indication of any financial downturn,” he said.

Community colleges indisputably have struggled in recent years as they deal with the dual challenges of increased enrollment and cuts by state legislatures. But critics note that the colleges’ problems predate the economic downturn.

“Before the downfall, everybody had lots of money and lots of students,” said Diane Milutinovich, who has filed several federal complaints against community colleges alleging violations of Title IX. “Why didn’t they do the right thing then? Now, when times are tough, it’s the women who are bearing the brunt.”

Finding a Balance

In many ways, Pensacola fits the profile of a typical community college. More than 40 changed according to correction by president Meadows/ktpercent of its students receive federal student aid, most have jobs outside school, and many of the college’s female students are single parents, said Ed Meadows, the president of the college. And like other community colleges, Pensacola has struggled in the economic downturn. Its budget has been cut about 18 percent over the past three years because of decreases in state financing.

“It’s tough,” Hamilton, the athletic director, said, adding, “We’re losing some positions and tightening our belts.”

Still, Pensacola has found a way to preserve sports programs, and women at the moment make up some 56 percent of the college’s athletes.

The athletic budget of $1 million, for example, pays for men’s and women’s basketball teams as well as baseball, softball and women’s volleyball. Many athletes receive scholarships for tuition and books. Some are given housing and stipends for meals.

Hamilton’s coaches visit tournaments across the country, attend camps at four-year colleges and pore over scouting reports. Filling female rosters “isn’t something we do by luck, it’s by design,” Hamilton said.

Brenda Pena, the softball coach, sent her assistant to Colorado in June to recruit at a tournament that drew more than 100 teams nationwide. Although her team finished last in its conference this year, she said, Pensacola has a reputation for fielding strong teams and for helping its students transfer to four-year colleges. As a result, Pena said, she is able to avoid the obstacle of attracting players from an older, less engaged student body by instead recruiting students straight from high school.

“We have plenty of people,” she said. “We have girls that are dying to play.”

In addition to being bound by Title IX, a Florida law holds all public schools to a high standard of providing equal opportunities to men and women, and the issue is closely monitored by the state community college system, Hamilton and other athletic officials said. “My president wants to know when he goes home tonight that athletics won’t be a problem,” Hamilton said. “That’s the rules, and we play by the rules.”

Still, Hamilton is not necessarily a fan of Title IX. He blames the law for the elimination of the men’s golf team in the 1990s, because one way of complying is showing that the percentage of female athletes is proportionate to the women’s share of the student body. Even today, Hamilton said, he must keep the rosters of men’s teams small because women make up more than half of Pensacola’s enrollment.

But despite his misgivings about the application of the law, he said colleges must provide opportunities to women if they hope to fulfill their mission to educate students through participation in sports. That is especially true at community colleges, he said.

“The kids down here, they are trying to crawl up on that first ledge of success in society’s eyes,” Hamilton said. “The more people of either gender that you can get into athletics, I think you help society tremendously.”


NIJ study: Positive findings for reducing teen dating violence/harassment

NIJ study: Positive findings for reducing teen dating violence/harassment
For Immediate Release: July 12, 2011

Findings from a National Institute of Justice evaluation of Shifting Boundaries: Lessons on Relationships for Students in Middle School, a youth dating violence prevention program in New York City middle schools, indicate that increasing awareness and monitoring of school environments can be effective strategies for reducing dating violence/ harassment (DV/H) among adolescents. This study was the first to use a rigorous scientific methodology with a young population of sixth and seventh graders; most teen dating violence projects look at older students.

The research team—Bruce Taylor, Ph.D., principal research scientist, NORC at the University of Chicago, and Nan D. Stein, Ed.D, senior research scientist, Wellesley Centers for Women at Wellesley College—randomly assigned 30 New York City middle schools to one of four conditions: 1.) a classroom-based intervention, 2.) a building intervention, 3.) both classroom and building interventions, or 4.) a no-treatment control group. Approximately 2,700 students completed surveys administered before the intervention, immediately after, and six months post‐intervention.

The data, collected and analyzed between October 2008 and December 2010, shows that Shifting Boundaries improves DV/H knowledge and intentions and reduces violent behavior compared to the control group which received no interventions. Findings include:

  • The combination of the classroom and building interventions increased student knowledge about laws and consequences about dating violence and sexual harassment.
  • The students receiving the building intervention were more likely to intend to avoid perpetrating violence (more pro-social behavioral intentions) immediately after the intervention.
  • The building intervention alone was associated with more positive intentions to intervene as a bystander (e.g., reporting an incident of violence to a teacher) six months post intervention.
  • The combination of the classroom and building interventions and the building intervention alone reduced sexual harassment (victimization and perpetration) by 26-34% six months post follow-up.
  • The building intervention reduced victimization and perpetration of physical and sexual dating violence by about 50% up to six months after the intervention.
  • The combination of the classroom and building interventions and the building intervention alone led to 32-47% lower peer sexual violence victimization and perpetration up to six months after the intervention.

An overview of the study and more findings are available online.

A copy of the slides presented during the June 2011 National Institute of Justice Annual Research Conference are available online.

A copy of Shifting Boundaries: Lessons on Relationships for Students in Middle School can be found online.

About Wellesley Centers for Women
Since 1974, the Wellesley Centers for Women has been a driving force—both behind the scenes and in the spotlight—promoting positive change for women, children, and families. Work at WCW addresses three major areas: the status of women and girls and the advancement of their human rights both in the United States and around the globe; the education, care, and development of children and youth; and the emotional well-being of families and individuals. Issues of diversity and equity are central across all the work as are the experiences and perspectives of women from a variety of backgrounds and cultures.



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